The humeral bones of today’s and fossil turtles were compared

The humeral bones of today's and fossil turtles were compared

Turtles are characterized by an unusual anatomy of the locomotor apparatus linked with the development of their shell incorporating modified elements of the axial skeleton and pectoral girdle. However, the appendicular skeleton was never properly documented in representatives of most turtle groups, and the anatomical terminology used by various authors was often ambiguous. The aim of this work is to present the anatomy of the humeri of many extant and extinct turtle species, to standardize the nomenclature, and to highlight phylogenetically meaningful characters.

Figure: anatomy and evolutionary changes of the turtle humerus.

PUBLICATION: Hermanson G., Arnal, F. A. M., Szczygielski T., Evers S. 2024. A systematic comparative description of extant turtle humeri, with comments on humerus disparity and evolution based on fossil comparisons. The Anatomical Record.